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NEMA Lighting Systems Division White Papers

NEMA LSD 1—Tungsten Halogen (TH) Lamps (Bulbs): Ultraviolet, Rupture and High Temperature Risks
Addresses the benefits and the safe operation of TH lamps. 

NEMA LSD 2—Wiring Requirements for T8 Lamps with Instant-Start Ballasts
Addresses field problems related to the retrofit of T8 lamps and instant-start ballasts into existing luminaires. These incidents indicate that installers are not always familiar with the wiring and other requirements issued by lamp, ballast and lampholder manufacturers.

NEMA LSD 2A—Application Note: Wiring Requirements for T8 Fluorescent Lamps with Instant-Start Ballasts
Reminds original equipment manufacturers and installers about some principal requirements that contribute to the safe operation and optimum performance of T8 lamps when used with instant-start ballasts. Improper wiring can cause field problems related to installation and retrofit of T8 lamps with instant-start ballasts.

NEMA LSD 2B—Application Note: Wiring Requirements for 2G11 Based T5 Fluorescent Twin Lamps With Instant-Start Ballasts
Addresses field problems related to installation of 2G11 based T5 fluorescent twin lamps with instant-start ballasts.

NEMA LSD 3—Interaction of Infrared Controls and Electronic Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Defines possible interactions between compact fluorescent lamps and remote controls typically used in home entertainment devices, such as TVs and VCRs.

NEMA LSD 4—Glossary of Terms Pertaining to Remote Illumination Systems
Defines the more common terms associated with remote illumination systems: systems intended to generate and/or conduct light from its source, an illuminator, through a light guide assembly to one or more remote locations, luminaires, for the purpose of illumination.

NEMA LSD 5—34 W Fluorescent Lamps and High-Frequency Electronic Ballasts
Discusses the operation of tin-coated energy-saving fluorescent lamps on high-frequency ballasts. Explains the technical basis for potential starting difficulties that can occur as the result of interactions between the inside tin-coated energy-saving lamps and some high-frequency ballasts.

NEMA LSD 7—Ultraviolet Radiation (UV) from Fluorescent Lamps
Discusses various scientific studies on possible effects of exposure to light sources reported in the popular press. This interest has been stimulated by the fact that: 1) most light sources emit some small amount of UV energy, and 2) extended exposure to the high UV levels in sunlight can causes adverse effects in the skin.

NEMA LSD 8—Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Residences—Power Quality Implications
Addresses the growing proliferation of high-reliability, low-cost electronic products that can represent non-linear loads from a power systems point of view. These products include entertainment information technology devices; food preparation and cooking products with electronic ballasts; compact screw-in fluorescent lamps; and other power-conversion devices that operate a variety of lamps.

NEMA LSD 9—Compatibility of Add-on Tube Guards with T8 Fluorescent Lamps Operating on High-Frequency Electronic Ballasts
Addresses concerns that arise in the field regarding the use of plastic tube guards on T8 fluorescent lamps operated on high-frequency electronic ballasts.

NEMA LSD 10—A Guide for the Safe Use of Remote Illumination Systems Equipment, Including a Glossary of Definitions
Facilitates the safe installation and use of remote illumination systems equipment. Includes consistent applicable definitions.

NEMA LSD 11—White Paper on Outdoor Lighting Issues and Quality Lighting Applications
Provides information related to outdoor lighting issues and quality lighting. Identifies specific lighting issues, explains the interaction of these issues, defines correct lighting terminology and provides straightforward technical guidance.

NEMA LSD 13—Exit Sign Brightness for Visibility and Safety
Provides a brief background on life safety codes and Standards requirements, reviews exit sign technologies relative to brightness, summarizes visibility research results and sets forth recommendations for the visibility of exit signs to promote safety.

NEMA LSD 14—Guidelines on the Application of Dimming to High-Intensity Discharge Lamps
Provides general information and considerations involved in the design and application of dimming circuitry employed with specific ballasts and lamps.

NEMA LSD 15—Radioactive Substances in Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Addresses why radioactive elements are used in the starting mechanism of compact fluorescent lamps.

NEMA LSD 17—Consumer Guide for 4-Ft Fluorescent Bulbs (RESCINDED)
Provides a simplified guide to fluorescent bulb replacement and safe application.

NEMA LSD 18—Compatibility of Fluorescent Lamps and Electronic Ballasts in Frequently Switched Applications
Provides guidance in the selection of ballast type as a function of lamp switching rate to achieve the desired energy savings while maintaining acceptable lamp life.

NEMA LSD 21—End-of-Life Operation of Small Diameter (5/8 in. Diameter or Less) Pin-Based Fluorescent Lamps
Addresses variations in electrical and thermal parameters of small-diameter fluorescent lamps.

NEMA LSD 22—Demand Reduction and Energy Savings Using Occupancy Sensors
Provides unique and valuable data about occupancy sensor demand reduction and energy savings potential.

NEMA LSD 23—Recommended Practice—Lamp Seasoning for Fluorescent Dimming Systems
Addresses flickering and other visual instabilities that occur when new fluorescent lamps are installed in a dimming system.

NEMA LSD 24—Marking of Luminaire Codes on Metal Halide Lamps
Discusses designations for high-intensity discharge lamps specified in ANSI C78.380.

NEMA LSD 25—Best Practices for Metal Halide Lighting Systems, Plus Questions and Answers about Lamp Ruptures in Metal Halide Lighting Systems
Provides educational information for the selection, operation and maintenance of metal halide lighting systems with specific emphasis on those items pertinent to the risks associated with lamp rupture.

NEMA LSD 27—Best Practices for Operating Fluorescent Lighting Systems
Summarizes information and recommendations found in more detailed NEMA papers on individual topics, as well as additional information and recommendations.

NEMA LSD 28—Minimizing the Potential of Base Arcing Between Certain Wattage HID Lamps and Lampholders
Provides information regarding Use of Appropriate HID Lamp Holders to Minimize Potential Base Arcing with Certain HID Lamp Wattages.

NEMA LSD 29—Incompatibility of T8 Ballasts (RS, PS, Dimming) and Shunted Bi-Pin Lampholders
Shows the correct application of lampholders.

NEMA LSD 31—A Lighting Systems Division Information Bulletin: Changes to the 2005 NEC Will Impact Future Metal Halide Systems Options
Addresses changes to the 2005 NEC that will impact original equipment manufacturers and specifiers of metal halide luminaires, as well as their customers.

NEMA LSD 34—Recommended Practices for T8 Rapid-Start Fluorescent Lamp Dimming (17 W, 25 W, 32 W and 40 W Lamps)
Addresses the selection, integration, installation, application and maintenance of the dimming system components that together constitute a T8 fluorescent lamp-dimming system.

NEMA LSD 35—ANSI Code Update to Include Letter C for Ceramic Metal Halide Lamps
Addresses ANSI code changes for ceramic metal halide lamps.

NEMA LSD 40—Failure Modes for Self-Ballasted Compact Fluorescent Lamps (SBCFLs)—A NEMA Update
Explains in simplified terms why SBCFLs have different failure modes from normal incandescent lamps.

NEMA LSD 41—UN2911 Labeling and Transportation of Lamps Containing Radioactive Substances
Discusses radioactive isotopes in light bulbs.

NEMA LSD 43—Luminaire Ballast Disconnects
Discusses U.S. and Canadian electrical code changes requiring disconnects between certain luminaires and ballasts.

NEMA LSD 44—Solid State Lighting—The Need for a New Generation of Sockets and Interconnects
Describes the history of sockets and interconnects and advocates for Standards development for the next generation of lamp and lighting technology.

NEMA LSD 45—Recommendations for Solid State Lighting Sub-Assembly Interfaces for Luminaires
Provides guidance on the design and construction of interconnects (sockets) for solid state lighting applications.

NEMA LSD 46—Photoluminescent Exit Signage—Factual Review
Describes concerns regarding the marketing and application recommendations common to photoluminescent exit signage in the U.S. and Canada. Intended to educate potential users as to the considerations regarding installing and relying upon this type of emergency equipment. Includes 12/16/09 editorial correction to labeling of units and equivalents for luminance values.

NEMA LSD 48—Lead in Household Lamps
Summarizes the use and reasons for use of lead in household lamps.

NEMA LSD 49—Solid State Lighting for Incandescent Replacement—Best Practices for Dimming
Provides recommendations for the dimming and design of screw-based incandescent replacement solid state lighting products.

NEMA LSD 51—Solid State Lighting—Definitions for Functional and Decorative Applications
Illustrates and clarifies the differences between functional and decorative solid state lighting luminaires and defines metrics needed to evaluate performance.

NEMA LSD 55—Outdoor Lighting and Human/Animal Factors: An Industry Opinion
Outlines industry concerns and opinions regarding the subject of light at night and outdoor electric lighting as related to humans, animals, energy conservation and the environment.

NEMA LSD 56—Compatibility of Forward Phase Control Dimmers and Dimmable Self-Ballasted Compact Fluorescent Lamps and Frequently Asked Questions Regarding CFLs and Dimming
Provides design guidance in the area of lamp/dimmer compatibility to the manufacturers of dimmable self-ballasted compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) that use forward phase control and the manufacturers of forward phase control dimmers.

NEMA LSD 57—Polyurethane Foam Application: Lighting Equipment
Provides information regarding practical aspects of applying spray foam insulation that may come into contact with luminaires in various building applications.

NEMA LSD 58—Air Infiltration Ratings for Recessed Luminaires
Addresses the standard test procedure, installation requirements, and labeling applicable to luminaires to demonstrate limited airflow.

NEMA LSD 60—The Effects of Dimming on Color and Efficacy of LED Lamps
Describes and demonstrates the effects of dimming on color and efficacy of LED-based lamps.

NEMA LSD 61—Fluorescent Dimming Standards Development Report
Summarizes the work of TFDS and presents the final results in a short report as a reference to more detailed cited publications.

NEMA LSD 62—Systems Approach for Lighting
Focuses on challenges for the lighting and regulatory communities, and defines "systems approach" to ensure optimization for efficiency and ease of use while retraining quality and S​tandards for visibility.

NEMA LSD 63—Measurement Methods and Performance Variation for Verification Testing of General Purpose Lamps and Systems

Establishes variations that can be expected when independent verification testing. Generally this is based on small samples of lamps or ballasts performed to estimate product performance characteristics and for comparison to manufacturer’s ratings.

NEMA LSD 64Lighting Controls Terminology

Defines terminology related to controls for lighting systems for non-residential and residential applications.

NEMA LSD 65—NEMA Guide to Emergency Lighting
Provides information on emergency lighting systems, related codes, and regulations.

NEMA LSD 66—Understanding the New Fluorescent Ballast Rule EPCA 10 CFR 430
rovides educational information about the Fluorescent Ballast Rule and the associated measurement methods.

NEMA LSD 67—Low Mercury Controllable Fluorescent Systems
Discusses technical tradeoffs associated with reduced mercury dosing in fluorescent lighting systems and their environmental impacts.

NEMA LSD 68Remote Phosphor Devices Used in LED Lamps, Engines and Luminaires

Facilitates development of testing and certification procedures that will allow the qualification of pump or source devices, pumped conversion materials/remote phosphors and reflective materials independently.

NEMA LSD 70—A Comparison of High Performance Luminaire Programs in the US Market

Illustrates the luminaire types covered by ENERGY STAR(R) Luminaires, DesignLights Consortium, and Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) guidelines and notes where the overlaps occur.

NEMA LSD 71—Best Practices for Metal Halide Lighting Systems Relative to Lamp Rupture Risks

Provides updated educational information for the selection, operation, and maintenance of metal halide lighting systems, with specific emphasis on those items pertinent to the risks associated with lamp rupture.

NEMA LSD 73-2015—Energy Savings with Fluorescent and LED Dimming

Includes dimmable fluorescent ballast and Light Emitting Diode (LED) drivers that are controlled by 0-10 V (1-10 V) control input. This paper explains the relationship between the control input voltage and overall energy consumed by these ballasts and drivers.

NEMA LSD 74-2016—Considerations of Field LED Driver Replacement

Discusses issues related to the field replacement of drivers in LED lighting fixtures, and how several aspects must be considered to ensure that the replacement driver will function the same as the original driver.

NEMA LSD E11—Fluorescent Lamps and the Environment

Answers questions regarding lamp technology and the presence of mercury therein, environmental concerns and industry and regulatory efforts. Fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps contain small quantities of mercury. Concerns over mercury releases to the air and water are driving stricter disposal regulations.


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